Production / manufacture of cement.

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Production / manufacture of cement.
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Generally, cement is any substance that has the properties of a substance sticking together. Adhesives are used for bonding aggregates in the construction industry, larger pieces of stone, brick and.... Naturally the first Cementation material hired by human was clay, that still we can see mud buildings in desert. Over the years, various different materials used as adhesive cement and today many different types of cement mortars, plasters mortars, adhesives and polymer ... are available. Today, most of the cement used shall be Portland Cement be discussed in detail below.
2.1 - History of Portland
One of the most difficulties of clay cement is the lack of water resistance.
This great made man to study on a variety of waterproof cement and in the result of the investigation, mortar cement was discovered.
Mortar composed of lime, ash, sand, clay and mud Louis that moisture resistant against clay. In ancient Iran, the mortar was used for building water reservoirs, ponds, and other structures that had sealing property.
Today with the invention of Portland cement, mortar consumption has almost stopped.
In the 18th century, the year 1756 AD when John Esmiton was officer of Beacon Towers, a study was conducted to achieve good cement and concluded that
best of cement is when in the mix we have limestone and clay.
In 1824, Joseph came to the conclusion that In order to obtain a suitable cement, limestone and clay mixture must be heated, and finally in 1845, Isaac Johnson recorded the name of Portland cement.
Portland cement production is generally such that after extraction of raw materials (limestone and clay) and their preparation, the mixture will be heated to temperatures over 1400. The outcome of this process is clinkers that mill it after cooling with 3 to 4 percent by weight of gypsum (caso4, 2h2o) to obtain Portland cement powder.
It should be noted that, Portland has been used due to the similarity in color and quality of the hardened cement with limestone, which is available in the UK.
2.2 - Production of Portland cement
Portland cement production is done generally in several steps that will be outlined below. But before it is essential that the cement industry has two major drawbacks are as follows:
1- High Energy consumption
2- Caused environmental pollution
Researchers and manufacturers are always trying to change the line in such a way that these disadvantages are eliminated to the extent possible.
2-2-1 - Select a location for the plant
Selecting a suitable location for the construction of a cement plant is in relation to a number of factors that include:
1 factory should be close to primary minerals (limestone and clay).
2 mining Capacity of raw materials should be according to factories for long-term needs.
3 qualities of raw materials should be acceptable.
4 plants should be close to the consumption poles
As can be seen, one and four are associated transport costs in the cement industry. Since the raw materials to factories and manufacturing poles have high costs, the factory should be in place to minimize both distances. Factors 2 and 3 are associated with the selection of suitable mines for the plant. Mine must be a good thing in terms of quality of material. Second, it should supply the minimum order quantity of 100 to 150 years annually. Otherwise it may not be economically. Because most of limestone rocks are as sedimentary rocks in the mountains and in the plains near the mountains there are clay minerals, between the mountains and plains is usually a good place to build a factory.




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